Is it better for muscle building to eat eggs raw?

This questions has been around for many years and even made it to the movie Rocky. No studies were available to confirm or dismiss this practice. Until now! Cas Fuchs from Maastricht University will discuss the results of his recent study in this blog and investigates whether Rocky was right or wrong!

What is better for muscle building raw or boiled eggs?

Did Rocky get it right by ingesting them raw?

It is well-known that egg (protein) ingestion after exercise strongly stimulates muscle growth (1, 2). Recent work has even shown that the ingestion of whole eggs stimulates muscle growth to a greater extent compared to only ingesting the egg whites (2). So, the intake of whole eggs appears to benefit your muscle growth. Rocky already showed us several decades ago that he was well aware of the great benefits of whole eggs around his workouts, as he ingested 5 raw eggs in the 1976 Movie ‘Rocky’.

However, the question remains whether Rocky should have boiled his eggs before ingestion or whether he was indeed fine by simply ingesting them in a raw form. Before giving an answer to that question, let’s first look at what the scientific literature tells us about differences between raw and boiled eggs.

Processing of eggs

Previous research in humans investigated the differences between ingesting raw and cooked eggs on its digestibility. These studies have clearly shown that substantially less of the egg protein will be digested after eating eggs in their raw (vs cooked) form (3, 4). So, it appears that less of the amino acids from an egg will become available in the systemic circulation when eggs are eaten raw vs cooked.

The reason why this happens, can be explained by two factors.

  • First of all, eggs contain several proteins that are known to inhibit protein breakdown. They do this by inhibiting digestive enzymes such as pepsin, trypsin, and chymotrypsin in our stomach and small intestine. These so called ‘protease inhibitors’, include ovostatin, ovomucoid, ovoinhibitor, and cystatin (5). Some of these proteins may be (partly) denaturated by heating such as cooking/boiling (which means that the structure of these proteins are broken down and thereby they lose their function). So, by boiling/cooking, you can increase the digestibility of the eggs, as you will ‘destroy’ the function of proteins within eggs that are in fact inhibiting the digestion process.

  • Another reason by which processing eggs can help us improve its digestibility, is because of denaturation of other proteins, which will make it in general easier for the digestive enzymes to break down these proteins into amino acids which can subsequently be taken up into the systemic circulation. As a result, we can say that cooking eggs will increase its digestibility and as a result also increase the amino acid uptake into our systemic circulation. So, did Rocky make a mistake by not boiling his eggs before he ate them? And would this have negatively influenced his muscle recovery and growth?

Boiling eggs for muscle recovery/growth

It is well-known that the amino acids coming from protein-rich food products are necessary to stimulate muscle recovery and growth. However, until now it still remained speculative whether boiled eggs would indeed better stimulate muscle recovery and growth compared to raw eggs. Therefore, we decided to perform a research study to investigate this. We asked healthy recreationally active men, familiar to resistance exercise, to ingest either 5 raw egg